The system called Markoja Smart EV (Smart Electric Vehicle) – MsEVP involves the development of hardware and software components; charging stations for electric vehicles (created by connecting smart parking systems and vehicle power supply systems) and applications for full MsEVP system management (by owners and users). The purpose of the project is to invest in research and development within the priority thematic areas “Transport and Mobility” and “Energy and Sustainable Environment”.
Developed transport infrastructure is considered to be a key factor for the sustainable and balanced development of any country. It strengthens its competitiveness and reduces traffic isolation, and well-established transport infrastructure aims to optimize moving traffic and ensure capacity for stationary traffic. Trends in traffic and the automotive industry follow technological developments and requirements related to environmental preservation and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and as a result, electric cars are increasingly being used in lieu of motor vehicles. Advances in battery development, energy efficiency, vehicle materials, design itself, and better aerodynamics bring electric vehicles into almost everyday use. The development of new technologies, especially in the field of batteries, enables very short charging time, but the main obstacles to the mass use of electric vehicles in road transport are still high cost and underdeveloped charging networks in certain countries. As with motor vehicles, the main problem stems from the fact that stationary traffic congestion will not be solved by increasing moving traffic in motion but by infrastructure changes, needed to ensure optimization of both stationary and moving traffic. The result of research and development will be a smart grid electric vehicle charging station within the structure of a rotary parking system with the primary aim of optimizing stationary and moving traffic. The system called Markoja Smart EV (Smart Electric Vehicle) – MsEVP involves the development of the following hardware and software components:
- charging stations for electric vehicles (created by connecting smart parking systems and vehicle power supply systems)
- applications for full MsEVP system management.
Applicant Decision, the EV charging station will be integrated into the rotary parking systems. The entire structure of a rotary parking lot can reach up to 20 meters in height, depending on the loadbearing capacity of the entire structure, and occupies only two parking spaces, about 35 square meters, and can accommodate up to 16 cars or vans up to 2.5 tons. This means that for a single parking space rotary parking creates additional seven. It works by having the rotary system hold automobiles in the air, stacked on top of each other on platforms and turning them in a circle to lower an empty parking space for a new car to the bottom until the parking capacity is completely full. The entire structure is modular, which ensures easy assembly and disassembly.
For the solution to work, it is necessary to ensure the connection of the logical elements of the parking platform system with the vehicle power supply system, which will enable stable and firm contact between the charger and the electric distributor on the slow and fast-charging platform. The vehicle power supply system uses electricity from the public power grid, which it converts to direct current to charge the batteries. The methods of charging electric vehicles and the external equipment of the stations for their power supply (charging station) are determined by the standards of the HRN EN 61 851 series. The distribution of electricity in rotary parking spaces will be provided by a controllable mechanical switch. The system would enable stable and firm electrical contact between the charger and the electrical distributor on the car platform itself.
A functional application for full MsEVP management (by owner and user) would use cloud infrastructure, have a server and client application (computer and mobile version), and would run on Windows, OS X, Linux, Android and iOS platforms. On the manager side, all parameters required for optimal platform use will be available via the app, such as the current and future state of reservations, the state of all chargers and energy consumption, customer support, billing by user groups. The client application will provide all the necessary parameters regarding the parking lot and power supply such as location, time, price of parking and charging, reservations, notices.
Project purpose and objectives
The objective of the project is to develop a smart grid electric vehicle charging station within the construction of a rotary parking lot, managed by the platform owner and the end user via app. Rotary parking takes up as much space as two vehicle parking spaces, and by placing the vehicle vertically on several levels, they accommodate up to 16 vehicles, depending on the size of the garage. By integrating EV power technology into each parked vehicle, we get a solution that allows vehicles to charge while parked in a garage space, where the space occupied by vehicles is significantly smaller than the space required for horizontal parking of an equal number of vehicles. The aim of the project is to gain knowledge and practical experience by cooperating with a scientific research institution on the research and development of innovative products. The project will explore the possibilities of applying innovative technical solutions and the concept of the distribution element.
The purpose of the project is to invest in research and development – within the priority thematic area “Transport and Mobility”, based on statistical indicators and analysis recognized as an important sector for future development of Croatian economy – develop the first final product, smart gird charging stations parking. As such, it will ensure smart traffic mobility (SmartCity access) which is a prerequisite for the prosperity of any urban environment.
The result expected after research and development is to be a smart grid electric vehicle charging station within the rotary parking systems that optimizes stationary traffic and reduces traffic congestion, which significantly affects the development of urban centers and the strengthening of infrastructure, thus offering a level of technology and new knowledge which represent a step forward and significantly contribute to the development of traffic as a whole. The developed system will be new to the global market. Detailed research related to product development has been conducted, patent applications for similar solutions were reviewed, and on this basis, it was concluded that none of the available solutions have an integrated approach to the development of transport solutions that provides application support or EV charging stations that provide slow and fast charging and safe and sufficient power supply inside the parking system.
Purpose and justification
The global trend of urbanization, reflected in the growing number of the world’s population living in cities, population growth, and the crucial impact on climate and environment, imposes increasingly demanding tasks in addressing the mobility of urban areas. When we talk about the problems of urban mobility, which have negative implications on the development of smart cities, the following problems are evident:
- underdeveloped EV charging infrastructure
- underdeveloped parking infrastructure.
The last few years have seen a shift in the use of propellant to power cars. Due to the reduction of pollution, the transition to alternative fuels, the reduction of fossil fuel reserves at all levels and the progress in the production of batteries, electric cars (EVs) are rapidly developing. The main advantage of an electric car over a conventional one is zero emissions. Electric motors are much more efficient than petrol and diesel ones, much simpler in construction, which drastically reduces the possibility of failure and the need to dispose of replaced parts. On an electric car there is no need to change motor oil that poses a great potential danger to the environment. It is quiet and does not contribute to sound pollution, which is a big problem nowadays, especially in cities. In addition, the use of electric cars reduces the need for oil and its derivatives, and the process of exploitation of oil and its transport (usually by sea) pollutes the environment and represents a potential environmental disaster. Research and development (R&D) and the prospect of mass production lead to a rapid reduction in battery costs and an increase in energy density. Signs of continuous technological advances confirm that this trend will continue, reducing the gap between competitive costs and EV internal combustion engines. Taking this into account, the number of electric cars is expected to stand between 40 million and 70 million by 2025.
With the widespread use of EVs, their charging is becoming a growing problem. Current electric car sales of far exceed their charging capabilities. Norway (Oslo) sells 40% of newly registered electric cars and currently has more than 80,000 units, with only 1,300 charging stations. Morgan Stanley estimates that 1-3 million public charging points could be needed in Western Europe by 2030. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), there are less than 100,000 publicly available charging stations in Europe today, of which only about 6% are for fast charging. In 2016, the number of charging stations reached 322,000 globally. According to IEA data, the number of newly registered electric cars around the world hit a new record in 2016 with more than 750,000 sales.
As a result of increasing the standard of living of citizens and dynamic life in cities, traffic produces negative effects of reducing traffic flow, traffic congestion, delays, increasing traffic accidents and their consequences. Also, with the expansion of mass production of road vehicles, motor or electric, first in Europe and then around the world, begins the problem caused by the use of vehicles, first moving and then stationary – parking. Research shows that vehicles are stationary 95% of the time during the day, which implies increasing demand for parking.
The following are common parking problems in cities:
- Users of the parking service are often the first to arrive before the space is occupied (e.g., employees who park during working hours)
- Street parking causes a decrease in traffic safety and problems of increasing road congestion. Parking on the street, parallel, angle or vertical causes interruption of traffic flow and endangers pedestrians who do not have good visibility to move along or across the road
- Lack of information on the availability of parking spaces causes unnecessary circulation of traffic in search of free parking space, which further burdens traffic flow and increases driver stress, thereby reducing the overall level of traffic safety.
The stability of the transport system depends on a number of factors, the habits of road users, available infrastructure, ensuring sustainable mobility in cities and rational use of space, but also the application of modern technologies to ensure all the above. On this basis, the imperative of solving traffic problems in urban areas is set by determining transport policy and developing solutions that will enable the harmonious, competitive and stable development of the urban complex. So far, the problems of lack of parking and EV charging stations have been partially solved, and at least when it comes to charging stations for electric cars, which does not have as much current implications on traffic as is expected in the future due to trends in the use of electric cars. MsEVP parking is the first solution to integrate the components of rotary parking and EV charging station with the use of application support for the management of parking spaces and charging stations. The artificial intelligence of smart rotary parking, based on the feedback data, will optimize stationary traffic and increase the technological usability of the system in communities. Smart rotary parking with charging function works economically because it does not take up parking space in width but in height, and additionally allows charging throughout the parking time of the vehicle, thus working efficiently and on time to end users, which is especially important in fast cities. When we talk about the location of the smart solution, it is the modularity of the solution and its simple application that will enable the positioning of the charging station in the city center itself, near major transport hubs. The application of artificial intelligence will enable the collection of data on user habits, but also the automatic sending of data to the end user about the charging time of the electric car and its cost price. By receiving data from the end user on, for example, vehicle pick-up time, the system will enable optimal use of energy and delivery of the service at the required time.